Planning, Execution, and Control Overview

Interfaces and data exchanges required to execute plan

Facility layouts influence on scheduling

Scheduling production and process manufacturing plans relative to authorizing, releasing, prioritizing, and sequencing work in a manufacturing process

 

Manufacturing Planning and Control (MPC)

 

Planning and Control Process:

1.       Plan

2.       Execute

3.       Measure

4.       Correct

 

Interfaces:

·         Points of interaction between two systems or work groups

 

Planning Interfaces

·         Interactions that facilitate planning and control of production activity

·         Communication channels by which the following plans are transferred to production

o   Sales and Operations Plan

o   Master Production Schedule

o   Material Requirements Plan

o   Capacity Plan

 

Material Requirements Planning

·         Explodes MPS into detailed, time-phased set of component and raw material requirements

·         Once calculated, becomes basis by which manufactured items are released into production and purchased items requisitioned and scheduled for delivery

·         Determines:

o   Quantity of all component and material required

o   BOM level required to fabricate those items

o   Date that components and material are required

·         Time-phased MRP is accomplished by

o   Exploding BOM

o   Adjusting or netting for inventory quantities on hand or on order

o   Offsetting the net requirements by appropriate component or raw material lead times

 

 

JIT vs. MRP

·         Informational/Physical

o   MRP uses streams of information through a computer system

o   JIT emphasizes physical visibility and demand-pull approach

·         Planning/Execution

o   Under JIT, MRP is used for planning, while execution uses visual demand-pull signals

·         Bills of Material

o   JIT assumes material flows directly into downstream operations, eliminating need for planning/tracking

 

 

Capacity Requirements Planning

·         Process of determining in detail the amount of labor and machine resources required to accomplish tasks of production

·         Scope of CRP includes:

o   Overall plan of resources

o   Rough-cut evaluation of a particular schedule’s capacity implications

o   Detailed evaluation of capacity requirements based on MRP

o   Finite capacity loading parameters

·         Workload and capacity must be balanced

o   Workload:  multiplying planned and released order quantities by the labor and equipment resources that are needed to do the work

 

Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II)

 

 

Execution Interfaces Definition: 

·         Production/activity control

·         Systems, plans, methods of communicating/executing activities

·         Feedback

 

Execution Interfaces:  (Activities)

·         Production Activity Control (PAC)

o   Execution end of MPC system

o   Comprised of shop floor control and supplier systems

o   Objectives

§  Communicate detailed schedules to manufacturing/suppliers

§  Identify bottlenecks

§  Highlight behind-schedule situations

§  Provide feedback

 

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PAC and JIT

·         Detailed scheduling unnecessary – work pulled through

·         No detailed operations scheduling – work is completed to fast

·         Detailed scheduling of workers/equiment not an issue

·         Data collection, monitoring, and order status not needed – WIP is not tracked

·         Receiptes of FGs used to back flush raw materials, componentes, and labor

·         No need for shop orders – Use Kanbans instead

 

Facility layout

·         Objectives

o   Reduce costs

o   Reduce time

o   Increase quality

o   Decrease inventory

·         Flow Types

o   Connected Flow:  assembly line

o   Disconnected Flow:  individual workspaces

·         Functional Layout

o   Similar functioning machines/tools located in same are

o   Not good for JIT because

§  Distance between work centers

§  Excessive material transport

§  Time separation

§  Possible alienation between work centers, can’t see each other

 

Layout Designs:

·         Job Shop

o   Benefits

§  Flexibility for customer

§  Making small batches for test marketing

§  Ensuring quality whenever high skilled labor required

§  Making unique or low volume products

§  Prototyping new products

·         Flow Design

o   Objectives

§  One-Piece Flow

§  Lower inventory

§  Less space required

§  Attainment of operation requirements

§  Flexibility to meet changes in output rates

o   Continuous Flow

o   Dedication repetitive flow

o   Batch flow

·         Cellular

o   Clusters broken into cells:  improved material flow, visibility, and continuous manufacturing

o   Families of part produced within line of group of cells

o   Floor space minimized

o   Direct handoff of parts emphasized

 

*Most are Hybrid of multiple flow designs*

 

 

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